Karl Baedeker, Southern Italy and Sicily, with Excursions to Malta, Sardinia, Tunis, and Corfu: Handbook for Travellers. Leipzig, London, New York: 1930, p. 15. The 1909 Baedeker guide Central Italy and Rome: Handbook for Travellers indicates that there was no rail connection with Guarcino. http://www.eurolink/, http://www.eurolink. it/ciociaria/c_guarc.htm and http://www.rtmol.stt.it/ciociaria/ citta/ guarcino.html provide online information on contemporary Guarcino.

An expanded statement of this argument is found in John W. Briggs, An Italian Passage, Immigrants to Three American Cities, 1890- 1930. New Haven: 1978; see especially the introduction and chap. 1.

Municipio di Guarcino, Ufficio dello Stato Civilie, Registro - Atti di Morti, 1879, no. 29; 1882, no. 72; 1893, nos. 10, 14, 23; and Municipio di Guarcino, Ufficio dello Stato Civile, Registro - Atti di Nascita, 1891, no. 22; also, the author's interviews with Tirocchi family members. Microfilm copies are available through the genealogy service of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints.

The summary that lists other Tirocchis and associated families is the result of a search of records in the Archivio di Stato, Frosinone, Italia: Municipio di Guarcino, Ufficio dello Stato Civile, Atti di Nascita, 1889, 1891; Atti di Matrimoni, 1876- 77, 1882, 1885, 1895; Atti di Morti, 1877, 1879- 80, 1882- 83, 1885, 1893, 1895; Registro delle Publicazione di Matrimonio, 1876- 78, 1881, 1883, 1885, 1887, 1890- 91, 1898.

"Chain migration" refers to a pattern of supported migration wherein the earliest migrants encourage and sponsor subsequent migration by other family members and close associates. Chain migrations usually result in a concentration of family members in one city of immigration, as pioneer migrants persuade and assist brothers, sisters, cousins, parents, etc., to join them in their adopted country. St. Bartholomew Parish on Laurel Hill Avenue in the Silver Lake community still acknowledges Guarcino as one of two Italian communes that provided its early parishioners. See the history of the parish Holy Name Society at http://www.rc.net/providence/stbartholomew/holyname.html

Also see "Italian Farmers," Providence Sunday Journal (October 18, 1891), p. 16; "The Italians of Silver Lake," Providence Sunday Journal (June 29, 1902), p. 18; and "Where Thrift and Enterprise Convert Rocky Wastes Into Fertile Acres," Providence Sunday Journal (June 6, 1915), sect. 5, p. 3. I am indebted to Father Robert W. Hayman of Providence College for bringing these references to my attention and allowing me to work from his clippings.

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Thirteenth Census of the United States: 1910 Population.

A later census lists Anna and Laura as entering the country in 1907, but this may indicate the year they arrived in Providence. The author has relied on the 1910 census, since the enumerator carefully recorded different dates of migration for different individual members of the families. In the photographs, Frank's status as boss is indicated by his hands. He holds a cigarette in one, and in the other grasps a piece of paper. The workers typically hold shovels, picks, crow bars, or other tools in such photographs. It would be interesting to know if Frank Tirocchi's stint as a labor contractor in Canada was connected to Father Federico Achille Tirocchi's mission there.

Among Maria's relatives, Gino Del Signore had a successful career in the Italian opera [see fig. 57]. His father Gino was a merchant in Rome. Vincenzo Del Signore operated a building and road construction business in Guarcino. Other Del Signores listed in the Guarcino Stato Civile records were either masons or carpenters. Primrose Tirocchi reported that her father managed a drug store on Atwells Avenue for Anna at this time. Primrose possesses a mortar and pestle from that shop, and chairs from the ice cream parlor in the store ended up in the third-floor workroom at 514 Broadway. No written records from this enterprise survive in the Tirocchi Archive. The author's account of Tirocchi enterprises is constructed from Providence City Directories, state and federal manuscripts, and family interviews.

Other evidence indicates that Eugenia was most likely thirty-one or thirty-two years of age and Laura might have been nineteen or twenty years old in 1910. It is not unusual to find ages reported in censuses to be "averaged" down or occasionally up.

Dr. Cella's mother's maiden name was Garibaldi, and the family claimed a connection to the Italian hero.

While Laura Tirocchi was at Anna's side throughout the history of the dressmaking shop, the evidence indicates that Anna was the prime mover at each stage of the business and the architect of her financial and professional life. This essay thus makes Anna the center of its story. Wendy Gamber, The Female Economy, The Millinery and Dressmaking Trades, 1860- 1930, part II. Urbana: 1997, documents the rise of department stores and their effect on independent dressmakers and milliners. See also Lois W. Banner, American Beauty. New York: 1983, chap. 2, for the rise of the ready-to-wear clothing industry and the success of department stores in attracting upper-class women. See Pat Trautman, "Personal Clothiers: A Demographic Study of Dressmakers, Seamstresses and Tailors, 1880- 1920," Dress, vol. 5 (1979), pp. 74- 95, for a general description of the waxing and waning of the custom-clothing industry.

Oh Boy, presented by the Junior League of Providence, Inc. (January 27- 28, 1928), p. 77. Madam Zarr also purchased a full-page advertisement at the cost of $50 [or about $467 in 1999 dollars]. Throughout this essay the author has included conversions of monetary figures into 1999 dollars and enclosed the present-day figures within brackets. Data since 1975 are from the annual Statistical Abstracts of the United States. Prior to 1975, they are based on the Consumer Price Index from Historical Statistics of the United States (USGPO, 1975). The calculations were made with a program created by S. Morgan Friedman and available at http://www.westegg.com/inflation.

There are only a few references in the shop records to U.S. Customs payments that suggest substantial imports. On April 2, 1924, Anna paid a $5 customs bill for "increased duties" following her European trip that year. The 25,326 francs worth of goods that she declared in Paris convert to about $4600 [$43,768 in 1999 dollars]. The duty for her imports in 1926, after she received a refund for overpayments, still approached $600 [$5500 in 1999 dollars]. On each of these trips she also purchased household furnishings and antiques: see the itemized customs declarations for March 10, 1924, and August 11, 1926, among the travel documents in the shop records; and Iqina Catelani to "Gentilissma Signora" [Anna], Firenze, April 25, 1924. Also see correspondence and itemized bill from the firm G. Gandola, "Trine-Ricami" [lace-embroidery], Firenze, to Anna Tirocchi, February 14, 16, and 19, 1927, in the Italian-language Tirocchi correspondence. Anna Tirocchi to Mrs. Martella, Anna's bookkeeper, n.d., in which Anna discusses a variety of business matters, including her income tax, the renting of her vacation home at Narragansett Pier, insurance policies, and the high utility bills resulting from too many hot baths, an issue she had also raised with Dr. Cella. Apparently, her niece Emily Valcarenghi Martinelli was managing the shop in her absence. Anna worried that Emily might be buying too much merchandise and advised that she return dresses that proved unsalable. Anna recommends not purchasing from one supplier, Colli, who had refused to take back unsold goods in the past. Gamber, op.cit., explores the social-class dynamics of these trades in chap. 4 and passim. Mary Molloy, the daughter of an Irish immigrant, built a customer base in St. Paul, Minnesota, by 1900 that resembles Anna's. Molloy's business closed the year after Anna and Laura opened their establishment at the Butler Exchange. Accounts of Molloy's career include references to her French connections, including trips to Paris at least annually to keep up on the latest in fashion. Judith Jerde, "Mary Molloy: St. Paul's Extraordinary Dressmaker," Minnesota History, vol. 47, no. 3 (Fall 1980), pp. 93- 99. Another Twin Cities modiste, Madame Rose Boyd, also was believed to make trips to Paris twice a year "to view the latest fashions"; see Julieanne Trautmann, "'Sizing up' the client, Minneapolis dressmaker Madame Rose Boyd," MA thesis, University of Minnesota, October 1997, pp. 2, 37, 159, 167. Banner, op. cit., p. 29.

Shop records include age certificates for Mary Barone, who was fourteen years and five months old on September 29, 1919; and Francesca Caito, age fourteen years and three months on January 27, 1922. Lucy Restivo began working at age fourteen years and three months: Lucy's mother "made her work." The Tirocchi Archive includes a note from a truant officer: "To whom it may concern - It is impossible for any child to secure an Employment Certificate until they are fourteen years old."

Beatrice Cella to Mother, Father, and Brother, July 19 and 24, 1935. She reported having fun on the ride down to Narragansett in her uncle's laundry truck.

Anna Tirocchi to E. L. DuPoint [sic] de Nemours, December 11, 1939.

Dr. Louis J. Cella, Jr., described her leg problem as "tuberculosis of the knee which caused her to walk with a stiff gait for life." Report of audit of 1929 return, February 5, 1931, found that the taxpayer was an "individual who is crippled and has to hire help to do her work being unable to do it herself." Anna's 1930 return was also audited without any additional tax levies. See the copy of the auditor's report, May 26, 1932; Tirocchi Archive.

Gamber, op. cit., p. 195, notes that department stores often sought to attract wealthy customers with private showrooms, where their most elite clientele could enjoy "all the privacy that they would enjoy in their own chambers."

According to Primrose Tirocchi, Anna claimed that the wives of newly well-to-do Italians lacked the culture and taste to appreciate her artistry. Perhaps as upwardly mobile persons themselves, they would not accept Anna's claims to higher social status. In an ironic series of events, Mariano Vervena, after serving in the Italian diplomatic service for thirty years, became an American citizen in 1932. He was quoted in the Providence Evening Bulletin (April 25, 1932) as explaining "America is my homeland. My wife and five of my six children were born here...my business is here"; Tirocchi Archive. Less than a year later, his Columbus Exchange Trust Company failed, and he returned to Italy permanently. See obituaries in the Providence Evening Bulletin (July 26, 1955), New York Herald Tribune (July 27, 1955), and a paper in Sorrento, Italy (July 27, 1955); Tirocchi Archive. The account of Laura's wedding in the Providence Evening Tribune (July 2, 1915) includes a sizable list of guests with non-Italian names; Tirocchi Archive.

See Isabel R. Brown to My Dear Anna, October 12, 1919, and I. R. Brown to Anna, November 23, 1919. Mrs. S. A. Walsh to Anna Tirocchi, Sept. 13, 1933.

Due bill from Vincenzo Del Signore, October 2, 1928, for "Riparazioni alla Chiesa Parrocchiale di S. Michele Arcangelo chesi asiguesione per conto della Signa. Anna Tirocchi"; Tirocchi Archive. The charge was 11,811 lire, or about $622 [$5800 in 1999 dollars]. Anna did contribute to a fund for the repair of Holy Ghost Church, which earned her a ticket to sit in the VIP section at the rededication of the church by the Bishop. Anna's contributions are listed in the shop checkbook stubs and in her income tax returns for the 1920s; Tirocchi Archive. The Tirocchis were strongly religious. In addition to Father Federico, at least two others were members of the Franciscan order in Italy. Anna and Laura regularly gave to religious charities, while the Silver Lake Tirocchis were major supporters of St. Bartholomew's and Holy Cross, the mission parish that developed in Johnston, Rhode Island, after World War II. Angelo's son Joseph was one of at least two American-born children that the family sought to direct to the clergy. He was sent to Brothers of Charity schools in Massachusetts and Quebec.

The history of dressmaking in the United States is recounted in Gamber, op. cit. Much of the family information is constructed from the 1920 census manuscripts. The letters are in the Tirocchi Archive. Dr. Cella's obituary ran in the Providence Journal (January 12, 1965), p. 30; Tirocchi Archive. The account of his China service came from his son, Dr. Louis J. Cella, Jr., who recalled visiting him in China. See Ubaldo U. M. Pesaturo, Italo-Americans in Rhode Island. Providence: 1936 and 1940, pp. 106- 7.

Members of other branches of the Tirocchi family had established the Rhode Island Cement Works Company and worked as contractors. Not surprisingly, Anna employed them in the Tobey project. She paid $50 to John Miller for plans for the house and hired the Ideal Concrete Products Company (her cousins Giuseppe and Eugenio) to pour the cellar foundations. See entries for June 20, 1917, and July 5, 1917 in the shop account books; Tirocchi Archive. Anna and Dr. Cella took possession of the Main Street building on October 3, 1923. Payment and financing of this transaction are indicated in the 1923- 24 shop financial records; Tirocchi Archive. Anna's payments are recorded in the shop financial records; Tirocchi Archive. P. Russo to Anna Tirocchi, November 23, 1922. The mortgage to Harvey Becthkas was for $3500 [$31,766 in 1999 dollars]. Her note with the bank had a $2500 [$22,690] balance. For the Simmonsville mortgage, see shop financial records, February 4, 1934; Tirocchi Archive.

See shop financial record entries for September 28, 1927, and January 21, 1929, for interest from Italian Consolidated Bonds; Tirocchi Archive. Giovanni Castagnacci to Laura Cella, September 10, 1928, acknowledges the loan from Anna. De Meis's stationary identifies him as "Appaltatore Delle Esattorie" (contractor/agent of tax collector's offices) for Trivigliano and Torre Caietani with his office in Guarcino. In the nineteenth century, the De Meis family was most often listed as substantial landholders in the community records. After De Meis died in 1927, Anna sought to recover her investment through receipts from a tax sale of the deceased's house and garden; Affino Giggalconi to Anna, n.d. On March 26, 1929 (Anna Tirocchi to Loreta De Meis), she wrote the widow seeking repayment of 2500 lire [$1,241 in 1999 dollars]. Anna expressed sensitivity for the widow, but sought sympathy for the costs to her health involved in earning the money in the first place. She also stressed the importance of maintaining Agnello's good name and indicated that her patience was waning, suggesting that she might be forced to legal action.

Anna Tirocchi to Mrs. S. A. Walsh, November 16, 1934.

Banner, op. cit., pp. 28- 32, asserts that dressmakers typically emphasized their craft and artistry over astute business strategy.

Anna's will and estate settlement are filed in Providence City Probate Court, no. 48948.

"Federal Hill's Growing Rival Silver Lake," Providence Sunday Journal (September 19, 1909); see also the Providence Journal (October 7, 1888), p. 10; these clippings from Father Hayman's files give an indication of the important role played by groceries in Italian communities (see n. 5); Eugenia, for example, extended credit to her customers, according to Primrose Tirocchi.

Panfilo Basilico built a popular and successful bakery on the East Side of Providence. He spoke in his interview with high respect for and praise of Anna's ability to develop a business based on a wealthy East Side "Anglo" patronage.

Notes from Dr. Cella to Mrs. Mastella, 1940 (no day or month given), and December 30, 1940, in the shop financial records; Tirocchi Archive.

See correspondence in the Tirocchi Archive.

Tirocchi Archive and author's interviews: evidence of Anna's support of Frank's business is scattered throughout the shop records for the 1920s (Tirocchi Archive) in the form of insurance payments on his truck and a Ford touring car; a down payment for a Packard truck, January 13, 1921; and payments prompted by an automobile accident; as well as the paying off of a mortgage on June 25, 1923. As mentioned before, Frank ran his business from the Broadway house and lived in one of Anna's apartments in the late 1920s. Other indications of family support includes a typed note from Ida [Federici, Eugenia Tirocchi Valcarenghi's daughter by her first husband], 324 Pocasset Avenue, November 2, 1920, returning a check from Anna and explaining that what she did for Anna "was done with a free heart with no intention of being repaid." At the time, Ida was a bookkeeper. She also discusses a coat that Anna bought for her. Tito Tirocchi to My dear niece, August 13, 1925; and Anna Tirocchi to Esteemed Mister Agnello, n.d.; Anna Tirocchi to Carlo C. Tirocchi, May 8, 1940, and May 21, 1940. Also see Angelo G. Tirocchi to Anna, July 13, 1934, and November 11, 1934, reporting on his progress in the Civilian Conservation Corps and his self-education efforts; Mrs. A. Martella [for Anna Tirocchi], January 23, 1942; and Anna Tirocchi to Tony Tirocchi, May 12, 1941. State death records, November 26, 1941, no. 379.