"Who's Who in the Mode: A Tale of Two Cities," Vogue, vol. 61, no. 1 (January 1, 1923), pp. 70-71 ff. This article in the thirtieth anniversary issue of Vogue gives an overview of both New York and Paris fashion between 1892 and 1923. It is a useful starting point for understanding the fashion hierarchy of the early part of this century.

Bettina Ballard, In My Fashion. New York: 1960, pp. 72, 259.

Bernard Roshco, The Rag Race: How New York and Paris Run the Breakneck Business of Dressing American Women. New York: 1963, p. 57.

Leslie Woodcock Tentler, Wage-Earning Women: Industrial Work and Family Life in the United States, 1900-1930. New York: 1979, p. 109. For a fuller discussion of the changes in American women"s activities, see Dorothy and Carl J. Schneider, American Women in the Progressive Era, 1900-1920. New York: 1993.

Elizabeth Hawes, Fashion is Spinach. New York: 1938, p. 233.

The Fashion Group, Inc., New York"s Fashion Futures. New York: 1940, p. 10.

Edna Woolman Chase, Always in Vogue. New York: 1954, p. 289.

Ibid., p. 32.

Royal Pattern Company (285 Fifth Avenue, New York), Le Costume Royal, vol. 16, no. 10 (July 1912), copy in the Museum of Art, RISD Department of Costume and Textiles [hereafter, RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles] library (see "Note on the A. & L. Tirocchi Archive, Collection, and Catalogue," p. 23).

Betty Kirke, Madeleine Vionnet. San Francisco: 1998, p. 224.

I am deeply grateful to Joy Emery and Whitney Blausen for sharing their research on dress patterns with the author for the purposes of this essay. The information on McCall"s Couture, Vogue Couture, and Butterick"s Starred patterns was conveyed to the author by personal communication with Joy Emery, November 18, 1999.

The library of the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles, contains several copies of these three magazines, mostly from the 1910s. Le Bon Ton was established in 1851, Le Costume Royal and Elite Styles in the 1890s. Single pages from Elite Styles from the late 1920s also exist in the department files.

Thanks to Diane Hamblin for drawing the author's attention to Inspiration and its companion magazine for men, Ambition.

This practice is noted in various Providence Sunday Journal articles from the 1930s in the clipping files of the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles. Corey's first name is spelled "Madeliene," not the conventional "Madeleine." She wasa graduate of RISD (1933) and a fashion writer for almost fifty years.

Chase, op. cit., p. 295. Many fashion writers have used the term "fashion Ford" to indicate a highly popular, best-selling style that crosses the boundaries of social class and income level.

Ibid., p. 108. Bettina Ballard describes the erosion of this policy in the post-World War II era, op. cit., pp. 303-05. Elizabeth Hawes gives her opinion on the intertwining of advertising dollars and editorial space in Fashion is Spinach (previously cited), pp. 177-88.

RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files contain vol. VII, no.3 of Filene's Clothes (September 1929). The publication span of the quarterly is currently unknown.

The Bergner name is also listed on the title page and at the bottom of a corset advertisement in the complete issue. This issue contains as well an article on new Paris designers called "The Rise of the Smaller Dressmaker," illustrated with sketches by Muriel King, who became an important New York couturier in the 1930s. King was also the cover artist for the 1926 issue.

"Dress War," Time (March 1936), pp. 70-76.

Both booklets exist in the files of the Department of Textiles, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Vogue, vol. 61, no. 1 (January 1, 1923), p. 136. Milgrim is also listed as fashion editor of the New York Tribune Syndicate Service.

New York Times (January 8, 1924), n.p.; clipping in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

Women's Wear (January 30, 1915), sect. 1, p. 12; and Women's Wear Daily (July 8, 1937), sect. 1, p. 3.

Providence Sunday Journal (September 24, 1939), photogravure section, n.p.; clipping in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

Mary Brooks Picken, "The Dressmaker and Tailor Shop," Harmony in Dress: Woman's Institute Library of Dressmaking. Scranton: 1924, chap. IX, p. 121.

Carolyn B. Reed, "A Day of Shopping in 1910," Boston Herald (undated clipping with 8/46 written across the face), p. 12; clipping in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

M. Tuttle, "Sewing In Other People's Homes," Ladies" Home Journal, vol. 34 (January 1917), p. 20.

Eleanor Rogers, Columbus, North Carolina, in a personal communication with Julia Turner of Providence, Rhode Island, October 1999. Mary Campbell, Cohasset, Massachusetts, in a personal communication with the author of July 1988. Mrs. Campbell also recalled having disliked her new, itchy wool-flannel petticoat enough to discard it in the bushes outside her home on her way to school, resuming it before she re-entered the house in the afternoon.

Jane Warren Wells (probably a pseudonym for Mary Brooks Picken, judging from inscription in the book's flyleaf), Dress and Look Slender. Scranton: 1924; and Margaretta Byers with Consuelo Kamholy, Designing Women: The Art, Technique and Cost of Being Beautiful. New York: 1938.

See, for example, Vogue, vol. 46, no. 8 (October 15, 1915), pp. 77-90.

The Fashion Group, Inc., op. cit., p. 17.

Berth Robert's, 1239 Broadway, New York (April, May, June 1934); Fifth Avenue Modes -The Magazine of Fashion, 74 Fifth Ave, New York (Fall 1933).

Fifth Avenue Modes, op. cit., p. 4.

The author is grateful to Susan Hay, RISD's Curator of Costume and Textiles, for sharing her research on Mrs. Lewis's diary.

The author is grateful to Jean Lewis Keith of Providence for sharing her research of the Soieries F. Ducharne records for the purposes of this essay. Susan Hay pointed out the location of this information in the Musée des Tissus de Lyon.

Harper's Bazaar, vol. LXX, no. 9 (September 1936), pp. 46, 48.

See, for example, Vogue, vol. 45, no. 8 (April 15, 1915), pp. 60-61, "Frocks And Gowns Made To Order." Caption to far right illustration on p. 61: "Chéruit also originated this model which makes striking use of gold embroidered black net over Nattier blue net, with Nattier blue ribbon and pink roses. Many other combinations are possible and the resulting gown may be simple or very elaborate."

Advertisement in Vogue, vol. 38, no. 9 (May 1, 1911), p. 107.

For an explanation of these distinctions at that time, see "Who's Who in the Mode," Vogue, vol. 61, no. 1 (January 1, 1923), p. 196.

Vogue, vol. 46, no. 7 (October 1, 1915), p. 4.

Advertisement for Best & Company in Vogue, vol. 37, no. 7 (April 1, 1911), p. 9.

See Patricia Mears, "Jessie Franklin Turner: American Fashion and Exotic" Textile Inspiration," in Creating Textiles: Makers, Methods, Markets. Proceedings of the 1998 Symposium of the Textile Society of America. Earleville (Maryland): 1999, pp. 431-40.

The invitation was extended to a "limited number of the first class dressmakers of America." The admission fee was $10, and no sketching was allowed. Attendees could order models for copying in their own shops, but no model would be sold to more than one dressmaker in the same city. Exclusivity was still uppermost in the minds of fashion consumers at this level.

"The Thrilling Romance of Smart Clothes," Boston Herald (November 6, 1934), n.p.; clipping in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

Much of the information on Marguerite comes from an unpublished paper by Filomena D'Elia of Washington, D.C. The author is grateful to her for sharing her research for the purposes of this essay.

Franklin Simon Fashion Catalog (Fall 1923). New York: 1993 (reprinted), p. 2 (inside front cover of original edition).

Roshco, op. cit., p. 48.

Donnelly Garment Company, Fashions To Live In From The House That Nelly Don Built. Kansas City: 1936, pp. 4, 11; in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

Advertisement for Lord & Taylor in Harper's Bazaar (October 1940); clipping in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

Kathleen McLaughlin, "A Brilliant Business Career Found its Birth in Boredom," New York Times (n.d., but from other bylines, probably March 18, 1939), n.p.; clipping in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

"The Dressmakers of the U.S.," Fortune (1934), p. 40; clipping in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

"Parisian Cocktail," Vogue, vol. 80, no. 5 (September 1, 1932), p. 92. The quote refers to Mrs. Reginald (Daisy) Fellowes and a black dress trimmed with coq feathers worn by Dietrich in the film.

New York Sunday Times (January 29, 1939), rotogravure picture section, n.p.; clipping in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

See, for example: "K. Howard and G. Walters Stress Growing Importance of Hollywood as a Source of Inspiration," New York Times (September 15, 1936); "Hollywood's Fashion Parade," Christian Science Monitor (January 22, 1936); "Cinema Fashions," Fortune (January 1937); E. L. Hampton, "1200 Mile Style Parade: World's Style Capital Moved to Hollywood," Nation's Business (April 1937).

Harper's Bazaar (January 1939), n.p.; clipping in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

Ballard, op. cit., p. 91

Advertisement in Harper's Bazar, vol. LVIV, no. 3 (March 1924), p. 125. Ads exist in Harper's at least back to 1921. Corticelli also offered several free fashion booklets to readers by mail. The March 1924 ad listed "Irene Castle Corticelli Fashions," "The Correct Color Hosiery For Every Shoe and Occasion," and "Spring Secrets in Corticelli Silks."

Advertisement copyrighted 1938 by Best & Company, probably from the New York Times (clipping dated in pencil, October 24, 1938); clipping in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

"Gowns of a stage princess," Vogue, vol. 37, no. 7 (April 1, 1911), pp. 40-41.

New York Times (n.d., probably December 12 or 13, 1937), n.p.; clipping in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files. Celanese manufactured rayon fabrics.

"Corsets," Women's Wear, vol. 4, no.22 (January 26, 1912), p. 12.

"Hold Back the New Styles," New York Times (February 25, 1912), sect. III, p. 1. The author is grateful to Pamela A. Parmal for sharing her research on copying and the Paris couture for the purposes of this essay.

New York Times (October 27, 1912).

"Paris Dressmakers in Protective Union," New York Times (October 24, 1915), sect. III, p. 9.

New York Times (January 23, 1916), sec. VI, p. 2.

"Predict Failure of Poiret's Plan," New York Times (January 15, 1916), p. 5.

"Against Style Piracy," New York Times (August 28, 1921), sec. II, p. 6.


New York Times (January 1, 1922), p. 3; and Betty Kirke, op. cit., p. 221.

"Mode Designers War Against Paris Pirates," New York Times (December 2, 1922), p. 17.

"War on Fashion Pirates"," New York Times (December 24, 1924), p. 24.

See Kirke, op. cit., pp. 221-25, for a fuller discussion of copyright disputes in France.

"Dress War," Time (March 23, 1936), pp. 70-76.

For articles related to this suit, see the New York Times throughout February 1936; Business Week (December 28, 1935; February 29, 1936; March 14, 1936; March 28, 1936; April 25, 1936); and Newsweek (April 4, 1936).

New York Times (n.d., probably late February 1938), n.p.; clipping in RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

Marguerite Martyn, "St. Louis' Designing Women," St. Louis Post-Dispatch (December 4, 1939), n.p.; clipping in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files.

Roshco, op. cit., p. 57.

Ibid., p. 51.

Vogue, vol. 45, no. 8 (April 15, 1915), pp. 60-61.

Hawes, op. cit., p. 235.

Ibid., p. 240. The quote continues: "The specialty shop profits by its large markup. ...The couturiere profits chiefly in the satisfaction of being able to eat while she has the pleasure of dressing stylish ladies in beautiful clothes."

Prices have been taken from the following sources: New York Herald Fashion Magazine (April 2, 1916), p. 5; Bonwit Teller advertisement copyrighted 1938, New York Times (possibly February 26 or 27, 1938), n.p.; New York Times (September 17, 1939), sec. L, p. 6; the above all clippings in the RISD Museum, Dept. Costume/Textiles files. See also Vogue, vol. 46, no. 7 (October 1, 1915), p. 125; Vogue, vol. 63, no. 11 (May 1, 1924), p. 8; Harper's Bazaar, vol. LXIX, no. 5 (May 1935), p. 13.

See Pamela A. Parmal's essay in this volume (pp. 25-49) for an in-depth look at the Tirocchis' pricing.

Roshco, op. cit., p. 138.

See John W. Briggs's essay in this volume (pp. 79-102) for discussion of Anna Tirocchi's other business interests.