Standard 1. Chronological Thinking
A. Distinguish between past, present, and future time.
B. Identify in historical narratives the temporal structure of
a historical narrative or story.
C. Establish temporal order in constructing historical narratives
of their own.
D. Measure and calculate calendar time.
E. Interpret data presented in time lines.
F. Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration.
G. Compare alternative models for periodization.
Standard 2. Historical Comprehension
A. Reconstruct the literal meaning of a historical passage.
B. Identify the central question(s) the historical narrative addresses.
C. Read historical narratives imaginatively.
D. Evidence historical perspectives.
E. Draw upon data in historical maps.
F. Utilize visual and mathematical data presented in charts, tables,
pie and bar graphs, flow charts, Venn diagrams, and other graphic
G. Draw upon visual, literary, and musical sources.
Standard 3. Historical Analysis and Interpretation
A. Identify the author or source of the historical document or
B. Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas, values, personalities,
behaviors, and institutions.
C. Differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations.
D. Consider multiple perspectives.
E. Analyze cause-and-effect relationships and multiple causation,
including the importance of the individual, the influence of ideas,
and the role of chance.
F. Challenge arguments of historical inevitability.
G. Compare competing historical narratives.
H. Hold interpretations of history as tentative.
I. Evaluate major debates among historians.
J. Hypothesize the influence of the past.
Standard 4. Historical Research Capabilities
A. Formulate historical questions.
B. Obtain historical data.
C. Interrogate historical data.
D. Identify the gaps in the available records, marshal contextual
knowledge and perspectives of the time and place, and construct
a sound historical interpretation.
Standard 5. Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making
A. Identify issues and problems in the past.
B. Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances and contemporary
factors contributing to problems and alternative courses of action.
C. Identify relevant historical antecedents.
D. Evaluate alternative courses of action.
E. Formulate a position or course of action on an issue.
F. Evaluate the implementation of a decision.
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